Category Archives: Education
Facebook Makes Changes to Combat Illegal Gun Sales
Facing mounting pressure from groups such as Mayors Against Illegal Guns and Mons Demand Action for Gun Sense in America, Facebook yesterday announced plans to remove offers to sell guns without background checks or across state lines. The social media site will being notifying users offering such sales of relevant laws a limit visibility of certain firearm-related posts to users ages 18 and older. Searchers for firearms on Facebook-owned Instagram will also return information on gun laws. The system will rely on users to report violating posts. "We will respond to posts that signal attempts to evade the law so we can delete them," said an AOL spokesman, according to The Wall Street Journal. Read more on violence.
Revamped SAT Designed to Increase Access to College
After only nine years using the “new” format, the College Board has announced changes to the SAT designed to focus the test more on important academic skills and increase access to college. In addition to making the essay section optional—which will put a perfect score back at 1600, from the 2400 of the past few years—the revised test will remove the penalty for incorrect answers or guessing and cut the more obscure vocabulary words. College Board President David Coleman said the changes were needed because the test had “become disconnected from the work of our high schools.” Coleman also announced fee waivers to low-income students who will now be able to apply to four colleges at no charge, according to The New York Times. Read more on education.
HUD Announces Funding to Provide Permanent Housing and Services to Low-Income People with Disabilities
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) today announced the availability of approximately $120 million in funding for state housing agencies to provide long term project-based rental assistance to extremely low-income persons with disabilities, many of whom are transitioning out of institutional settings or are at high risk of homelessness. State housing agencies will be working with state Medicaid and Health and Human Service offices to identify, refer and conduct outreach to persons with disabilities who require long-term services and supports to live independently. Read more on housing.
In Shasta County, Calif., the Shasta County Health and Human Services Agency is using a County Rankings & Roadmaps grant to realize the “Shasta Promise,” which helps young people in the community prepare for success in any post-secondary school option so that they can obtain high-skill, high-income jobs that will yield long-term health benefits.
High poverty rates, low educational attainment and lack of employment opportunities are among the factors that make Shasta one of the least healthy counties in California. Only 19.7 percent of Shasta County’s adult population age 25 or older has a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 30.2 percent statewide. The goal of Shasta Promise is to increase awareness of and preparedness for post-secondary education. The program provides students in middle school, high school and college with the guidance and support they need to overcome barriers to pursuing higher education, and encourages a culture of college attendance among county residents.
To accomplish this, the county is implementing a newly-established College and Career Readiness Strategic Plan:
- School leaders and counselors are being provided with a training curriculum and sessions to help them get students ready for college.
- Parent focus groups are being convened to inform the development of an engagement plan between the schools and families.
- Written policies are being developed for local colleges to accept all county students who meet enrollment requirement.
- An agreement is being secured from Southern Oregon University to charge in-state tuition for Shasta County students who are admitted.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Charlene Ramont, a public health policy and program analyst with the Shasta County Health and Human Services Agency, and Tom Armelino, Shasta County’s Superintendent of Schools, about the Shasta Promise.
NewPublicHealth: What is the mission of the project?
Charlene Ramont: Our aim is to give every student, every option. We want all students, when they graduate from high school, to be prepared for all options post high school. When they graduate, they need to be prepared to join the military if they so choose, they need to be prepared to go to college if they so choose, they need to be prepared to go to a trade school or a certificate program.
>>NewPublicHealth continues a new series to highlight some of the best public health education and outreach campaigns every month. Submit your ideas for Public Health Campaign of the Month to info@newPublichealth.org.
With only nine percent of current college students actively choosing teaching as a career, the Ad Council has launched a new PSA series to help recruit more students to join the ranks of educators. The need is critical. The worry: Half of all teachers are eligible to retire in the next decade, according to Ad Council research, leaving the potential for critical shortages for trained professionals across the United States.
Education is not just a rung to the best job possible—research shows that education is also critical for improving the health of individuals and communities. An infographic created last year by NewPublicHealth to showcase the goals of the National Prevention Strategy—a strategic plan across federal agencies to improve U.S. population health—illustrated key links between education and health, including:
- Each additional year of schooling represents an 11 percent increase in income
- The more years of education a mother attains, the more likely her infant is to survive and thrive
Some of the taglines of the PSA series, designed to appeal to both students and mid-career professionals, include:
- I’m a teacher, I make more
- You don’t need to be famous to be unforgettable
- You wanted to be a teacher when you were 12 years old; it’s time to put it back on your list
Improved Prevention and Treatment Decrease U.S. Stroke Deaths
Stroke deaths in the United States have declined dramatically in the last few decades because of improved prevention and treatment, according to a scientific statement published in Stroke, published by the American Heart Association. “The decline in stroke deaths is one of the greatest public health achievements of the 20th and 21st centuries,” said Daniel T. Lackland, DrPH, chair of the statement writing committee and professor of epidemiology at the Medical University of South Carolina, in Charleston, S.C. “The decline is real, not a statistical fluke or the result of more people dying of lung disease, the third leading cause of death,” said Lackland, who added that “although all groups showed improvement, there are still great racial and geographic disparities with stroke risks as well many people having strokes at young ages [and] we need to keep doing what works and to better target these programs to groups at higher risk.” Public health efforts that have helped lower stroke rates include hypertension control that started in the 1970s; smoking cessation programs; improved control of diabetes and high cholesterol levels; and improved stroke treatment options. Read more on prevention.
NHTSA Announces New Safety Efforts for Older Drivers
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has announced a new strategic plan to help ensure the safety of older drivers and passengers. In 2012, according to NHTSA, more than 5,560 people over the age of 65 died, and 214,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. That’s a three percent increase in the number of fatalities and a 16 percent increase in the number of injuries from the previous year. In addition, since 2003 the population of older adults—defined as age 65 and older—has increased by 20 percent and the number of licensed older drivers increased by 21 percent, to 35 million licensed older drivers in 2012.
NHTSA has several new efforts in place to reduce these deaths and injuries:
- The agency is researching advanced vehicle technologies, including vehicle-to-vehicle communications, collision avoidance and crashworthiness that could help reduce the risk of death or injury to older occupants in the event of a crash. It is also considering adding a “silver” rating system, meaning cars with certain technologies might be preferable for older drivers.
- NHTSA will conduct studies to better understand the effects of age-related medical conditions, including dementia.
- NHTSA will continue public education efforts on functional changes that can impact driving, including vision, strength, flexibility and cognition.
Read more on transportation.
Poll: Parents Concerned Over Lack of Physical Activity During School Day
A recent poll conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health, National Public Radio and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation found that many parents are concerned about inadequate levels of physical education at schools. More than 1,300 parents of public school students were polled on a range of issues concerning education and health in the their child’s school, and one in four parents (25 percent) said their child’s school gives too little emphasis to physical education, compared with one in seven who say the same thing about reading and writing (14 percent) or math (15 percent). About three in 10 parents (28 percent) give a low grade (C, D or F) to their child’s school on providing enough time for physical education, while almost seven in 10 parents (68 percent) report that their child’s school does not provide daily physical education classes, a recommendation included in U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for schools. “In a period with a significant public debate about the content of educational reform, it is significant that many parents feel that more physical education is needed in the schools,” said Robert Blendon, ScD, Richard L. Menschel professor of Health Policy and Political Analysis at Harvard. Read more on education.
The Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH), like the American Public Health Association, held its annual meeting in Boston last week. NewPublicHealth spoke with Harrison Spencer, MD, MPH, executive director of the ASPPH, from Boston about the meeting and what’s ahead for students of public health.
NewPublicHealth: How was the meeting and what were some of the key sessions?
Harrison Spencer: Our meeting this year was the first one held since we formed our new organization, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, on August 1. The new organization is now comprised of all accredited public health academic institutions, both schools and programs. We’ve got 93 members now, an increase from 57 members before, so this was a wonderful and exciting and dynamic annual meeting with lots of energy and lots of promise.
Among the highlights were Harvey Fineberg, MD, PhD, president of the Institute of Medicine, who gave us an inspirational talk about public health leadership, and Laura Liswood, Secretary General of the Council of Women World Leaders, who led a discussion on diversity as a way to make organizations and institutes stronger.
“For too long, we’ve thought of health as something that happens to you in a doctor’s office,” explained Howard Koh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health on Monday at the American Public Health Association (APHA) 2013 meeting. “We have about 20 leading health indicators that we look at closely, one of them is high school graduation.”
Koh went on to describe social efforts such as boosting graduation rates as among the most important things we can do to improve health for the future. He also discussed the important role that learning plays in being healthy—and that being healthy can also free kids up to focus and get a better education. The assistant secretary’s sentiments kicked off a panel on the indelible connection between the nation’s drop-out crisis and public health, and the ways in which we can achieve success in both.
Robert Balfanz of the Johns Hopkins School of Education began by describing the drop out epidemic: the overall graduation rate in the United States is as low as 78 percent and is far lower in some communities with the greatest inequities. In fact, one third of all schools produce 85 percent of the country’s drop outs. Chronic absenteeism, often related to student health, is the leading cause of the issue. For example, 25 percent of students in one city missed a year or more of schooling over a five-year period.
Health factors have a significant impact on academic success and graduation rates. According to Charles Basch of Teachers College at Columbia University, health issues such as poor vision, asthma and teen pregnancy inhibit student success, disproportionately so in children of urban, minority communities. Left unaddressed, these issues can form causal pathways to the increased likelihood of dropping out.
Study: Majority of U.S. Medical Schools Still Lack Proper Clinical Conflict of Interest Policies
Despite recent efforts to improve policies, most U.S. medical schools still do not meet national standards regarding clinical conflicts of interest (CCOI), according to a new study from the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP). The study looked at changes in a dozen areas from 2008 to 2011, finding that by 2011 about two-thirds of the schools did not have policies to limit industry ties in at least one of the areas, such as drug samples, travel payments and speaking. No school was perfect across the board. "There has been a broad and rapid transformation in how academic medicine manages industry relationships since we looked at this in 2008, but much room for improvement remains," says co-author David Rothman, PhD, president of IMAP. To facilitate continued improvements, IMAP last launched a Conflict of Interest Policy Database that enables anyone to search a school's CCOI policies and compare them to other schools. "Our hope is that the database will encourage deans, compliance officers, faculty and students to compare their school with others and take steps to meet national recommendations," said IMAP investigator Susan Chimonas, PhD. Read more on education.
Online Tools Can Help Diagnose Mental Health Disorders
While it can’t replace in-person observations, an online diagnostic tool has proven to be effective at screening adults for mental health disorders and giving preliminary diagnoses, according to a new study in the journal Family Practice. The TelePsy eDiagnostics system is used in primary care practices in The Netherlands. Patients completed a questionnaire, which was then analyzed by a psychologist who would perform a phone consultation with the patient. The result would be a report submitted to a primary care provider, which would include a preliminary diagnosis and recommendations on whether the patient should be referred to mental health care, as well as the extent of the care. "The great advantage of an electronic system is that patients can complete diagnostic tests at home,” said lead author Ies Dijksman, according to Reuters. “This could lead to a more accurate information collection process compared to conventional clinical interviews.” However, experts were careful to note that in-person diagnostics meant physicians could also account for things such as visual cues, which could help improve diagnoses. Read more on mental health.
Study: No Reason for Healthy Adults to Take Vitamin D Supplements to Prevent Osteoporosis
Regular vitamin D supplements do not prevent osteoporosis in healthy adults who do not already suffer from a vitamin D deficiency, according to a new review publish in The Lancet. Researchers reviewed data from 23 studies covering more than 4,000 healthy adults with an average age of 59, finding no evidence that two years of supplements had an effect on bone mineral density at the hip, spine, forearm or the body as a whole. "The review supports previous studies that found that vitamin D alone is not preventative in healthy adults," said Victoria Richards, an assistant professor of medical sciences at the Netter School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, Conn. "From this study, consumers may no longer feel the need to continue purchasing vitamin D supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis.” Read more on aging.
Many students staring or returning to college this fall may find something missing—exposure to tobacco products.
Last September the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), together with several key partners, launched the National Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative to promote and support the adoption and implementation of tobacco-free policies at universities, colleges, and other institutions of higher learning across the U.S. Initiative partners include the American College Health Association and the University of Michigan. Initiative staff members work closely with academic leaders, public health advocates, students, researchers, and others to help speed up the elimination of tobacco use on college campuses. “This is a lofty goal, but an attainable one, as we are witnessing exponential growth in the adoption of these policies by academic institutions in all regions of the country,” says Howard Koh, MD, MPH, the U.S. Assistant Secretary for Health who helped launch the initiative last year at the University of Michigan, which included an internationally webcast symposium at the University of Michigan School of Public Health.
The initiative includes a website created to serve as a clearinghouse of key information to assist educational communities in establishing tobacco-free environments. The University of Michigan’s comprehensive smoke-free policy went into effect in 2011.
Smoke-free and tobacco-free policies are not the same, according to HHS. Smoke-free policies refer to any lighted or heated tobacco or plant product intended for inhalation—including cigars, cigarettes and pipes. Tobacco-free policies cover these and all other forms of tobacco (although e-cigarettes are still exempt on some campuses due to the still-evolving nature of the regulations). HHS officials point out that although some campuses are smoke-free while others are tobacco-free, the ultimate goal is for all campuses to eventually be 100 percent tobacco-free.
With the start of the fall college imminent or already underway at most universities, NewPublicHealth spoke with Dr.Koh about the success of the Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative so far, and what’s ahead in tobacco control efforts for young adults by the Department of Health and Human Services.
NewPublicHealth: What success has the initiative seen since it was launched last year?
Dr. Koh: We’re very proud that the Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative has accelerated rapidly. When we formally announced this in September of 2012, there were 774 colleges and universities that were tobacco or smoke-free and as of right now, the number has risen to 1,159—that’s an increase of more than one-third in less than a year. We are gratified by the positive response from colleges and universities and leaders from across the country who want to make their environments healthier.
NPH: What are the short-term and long-term goals for the initiative?
Dr. Koh: The ultimate goal is to have all colleges and universities in the U.S. choose to become 100 percent tobacco-free and we’re making steady progress towards that goal because we fully understand that prevention efforts must focus not just on children, but also young adults. The number of smokers who are starting to smoke after age 18 has increased. That number was a million in 2010 when it used to be 600,000 in 2002. We have figures that show that one out of four full-time college students were current smokers in 2010, which is higher than the national prevalence of 19 percent. These numbers underscore why college is a critical age to influence health habits of young adults.
Six States to Split $89.2M for Early Learning Programs
Six states will split approximately $89.2 million in federal funding as supplemental awards from the 2013 Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC), which works to expand and improve early learning programs. The six states are California, Colorado, Illinois, New Mexico, Oregon and Wisconsin. Each must now submit detailed budgets, budget narratives, revised performance measures and signed assurances. The funds will go toward developing new programs and strengthening existing programs that help close the “opportunity gap,” according to U.S. Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan. Added U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius: “Kids who attend high-quality early learning and pre-school programs are more likely to do well in school. They're more likely to secure a good job down the road; and they're more likely to maintain successful careers long-term.” Read more on education.
A Single Fight-related Injury Can Reduce Adolescent IQ by Equivalent of One Lost School Year
A single fight-related injury can reduce an adolescent or teen girl’s IQ by about 3.02 points, according to a new study in the Journal of Adolescent Health. For a boy it can mean a loss of 1.62 points. Studies have measured the effect of missing a year of school as about a 2-4 point decrease in IQ. IQ loss is generally associated with poorer school and work performance; mental disorders; behavioral problems; and longevity, according to the researchers from the Florida State University researchers noted. About 4 percent of U.S. high school students suffer from fight-related injuries annually. "We tend to focus on factors that may result in increases in intelligence over time, but examining the factors that result in decreases may be just as important," said study co-author Joseph Schwartz, a doctoral student in the College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, in a release. "The first step in correcting a problem is understanding its underlying causes. By knowing that fighting-related injuries result in a significant decrease in intelligence, we can begin to develop programs and protocols aimed at effective intervention.” Read more on violence.
Study Links Sugary Drinks, Obesity in Preschoolers
Even though the percentage as a calorie source is relatively minor, preschoolers who drink sugar-sweetened soda, sports drinks or juices every day are at greater risk for obesity, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. The findings parallel studies on teens and adults, which show a link between sugary drinks and extra weight. Kids who consumed at least one of the drinks each day were 43 percent more likely to be obese than their counterparts. They were also more likely to have an overweight mother and to watch at least two hours of television daily from ages four to five; researchers adjusted for these factors, as well as socioeconomic status. Potential reasons include the possibility that the sugary drinks were not filling, so did not replace other calories in the children’s diets. The study did not account for other eating habits or physical activity. Read more on nutrition.